Sunday, October 21, 2012

2012MFA-MADJU-235-0409

Question 1 1 out of 1 points A workhouse, created for employment and housing in London during the 16th century, is called: Answer Selected Answer: bridewell. Question 2 1 out of 1 points What did the Christian church call a place of seclusion that is conducive to penitence for offenders? Answer Selected Answer: The sanctuary Question 3 1 out of 1 points __________________ is the custom of atonement for wrongs by payment to appease the victim's family or tribe. Answer Selected Answer: Lex salica Question 4 1 out of 1 points Corrections is an important field of study because of all the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: declining use of prisons. Question 5 0 out of 1 points Who argued that that the crime rate would go down if the amount of punishment were carefully calibrated to deter potential offenders and maximize pleasure? Answer Selected Answer: John Howard Question 6 1 out of 1 points Sir Thomas More refused to accept which of the following statements that resulted in his death? Answer Selected Answer: Unification of the Church and State. Question 7 0 out of 1 points England transported many offender populations to America and Australia. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 8 1 out of 1 points The most common forms of state punishment over the centuries have been death and corporal punishment. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 9 0.5 out of 1 points Match each code of law listed in Column 1 to the code's correctional ideology in Column 2. Column 1 Column 2 1. Code of Draco a. Punishment sought confessions and repentance 2. Sumerian Code b. Same penalties for citizens and slaves 3. Christian Codes (Inquisition) c. Penalties should fit the crime 4. Roman Code d. Penalties based on vengeance Answer Question Selected Match 1 B. D 2 A. B 3 C. A 4 D. C Question 10 0 out of 1 points Penn's Great Law was founded on religious principles and focuses largely on religious offenses. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 11 1 out of 1 points The infliction of physical pain upon an offender is called corporal punishment. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 12 1 out of 1 points This idea assumes that individuals choose their actions, good or bad, and thus can be held fully responsible for them. Answer Selected Answer: Free will Question 13 1 out of 1 points ________________ is recognized as the founder of the Classical School of criminology. Answer Selected Answer: Cesare Beccaria Question 14 1 out of 1 points The Hospice of San Michele is generally recognized as one of the first institutions to handle juvenile offenders exclusively. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 15 1 out of 1 points Personal retaliation was the earliest remedy for wrongs to persons and property. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 16 0 out of 1 points A complete loss of citizenship and liberty, confiscation of property, and release of a spouse to remarry is called: Answer Selected Answer: lex talionis. Question 17 1 out of 1 points The doctrine that the aim of all action should be the greatest pleasure for the largest number of citizens is called: Answer Selected Answer: utilitarianism. Question 18 1 out of 1 points What was the first set of codified laws based on vengeance? Answer Selected Answer: Sumerian Code Question 19 0.25 out of 1 points Match each philosopher listed in Column 1 to the correctional ideology in Column 2. Column 1 Column 2 1. John Howard a. Classical School of Criminology 2. William Penn b. Hedonistic Calculus 3. Jeremy Bentham c. Great Law 4. Cesare Beccaria d. Improving sanitary conditions in places of detention Answer Question Selected Match 1 C. B 2 A. D 3 D. A 4 B. C Question 20 1 out of 1 points Corporal and capital punishment were not popular during the Age of Enlightenment. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 21 0 out of 1 points _______________ was the first punishment imposed by society and heralded the beginning of criminal law as we know it. Answer Selected Answer: Probation Question 22 0 out of 1 points St. Thomas Aquinas differentiated three types of law (1) external law, (2) internal law, and (3) social law. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 23 1 out of 1 points __________ distinguished among three laws: eternal law, natural law and human law. Answer Selected Answer: Thomas Aquinas Question 24 1 out of 1 points Which of the following philosophers developed the hedonistic calculus? Answer Selected Answer: Jeremy Bentham Question 25 0 out of 1 points Cruel and barbarous punishment has been founded in all of the following notions EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: repay society. Question 1 1 out of 1 points Penn's Great Law abolished capital punishment. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 2 1 out of 1 points Rehabilitation was a major goal of punishment in the early history of corrections. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 3 0 out of 1 points ________________ suggested that criminal laws should be organized so that the punishment for any act would outweigh the pleasure that would be derived from the act. Answer Selected Answer: Cesare Beccaria Question 4 0 out of 1 points The Quakers were the first to develop a "House of Corrections." Answer Selected Answer: False Question 5 1 out of 1 points St. Thomas Aquinas differentiated three types of law (1) external law, (2) internal law, and (3) social law. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 6 1 out of 1 points The most common forms of state punishment over the centuries have been death and corporal punishment. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 7 0 out of 1 points A complete loss of citizenship and liberty, confiscation of property, and release of a spouse to remarry is called: Answer Selected Answer: getting right with God. Question 8 1 out of 1 points The Code of Draco created separate codes for citizens and slaves. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 9 1 out of 1 points What did the Christian church call a place of seclusion that is conducive to penitence for offenders? Answer Selected Answer: The sanctuary Question 10 0 out of 1 points Who argued that that the crime rate would go down if the amount of punishment were carefully calibrated to deter potential offenders and maximize pleasure? Answer Selected Answer: Count Bridewell Question 11 0 out of 1 points A form of personal retaliation where the victim s family takes revenge on the offender's family is called: Answer Selected Answer: friedensgeld. Question 12 1 out of 1 points __________ distinguished among three laws: eternal law, natural law and human law. Answer Selected Answer: Thomas Aquinas Question 13 1 out of 1 points A _______________ is a birdcage-like instrument placed over an offender's head that extends iron spikes into the offender s mouth to prevent movement. Answer Selected Answer: brank Question 14 1 out of 1 points Penn's Great Law was founded on religious principles and focuses largely on religious offenses. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 15 0 out of 1 points The practice of paying restitution for crimes to the Crown, in addition to victims, was known as: Answer Selected Answer: wergeld. Question 16 1 out of 1 points Corporal and capital punishment were not popular during the Age of Enlightenment. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 17 1 out of 1 points What was the first set of codified laws based on vengeance? Answer Selected Answer: Sumerian Code Question 18 0 out of 1 points The notion of free will suggests that offenders are influenced by internal and social factors that predispose them to criminal behavior. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 19 1 out of 1 points A workhouse, created for employment and housing in London during the 16th century, is called: Answer Selected Answer: bridewell. Question 20 0 out of 1 points The extensive use of capital and corporal punishment during the Middle Ages reflected a belief that punishment would __________. Answer Selected Answer: lower the crime rates. Question 21 0 out of 1 points Outlawry was the first punishment imposed by society. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 22 0 out of 1 points Bentham's writings were adapted into the French Penal Code (1810). Answer Selected Answer: True Question 23 0 out of 1 points _______________ was the first punishment imposed by society and heralded the beginning of criminal law as we know it. Answer Selected Answer: death penalty Question 24 0 out of 1 points Cruel and barbarous punishment has been founded in all of the following notions EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: retaliation against offender. Question 25 1 out of 1 points The infliction of physical pain upon an offender is called corporal punishment. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 1 0 out of 1 points The Auburn system's structural design served as the model of prisons built for the next 150 years. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 2 0 out of 1 points The Crofton system is based upon biblical scriptures. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 3 1 out of 1 points Who was the first director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons? Answer Selected Answer: Sanford Bates Question 4 0 out of 1 points The prison population increased since 1960 due to all of the following factors EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: media and special interest groups. Question 5 1 out of 1 points Sanford Bates was the first director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 6 0 out of 1 points Prison riots and other disturbances increased when prisons became "total institutions." Answer Selected Answer: False Question 7 0 out of 1 points Prison cells that do not touch the outside walls of the cell block are known as: Answer Selected Answer: internal cells. Question 8 1 out of 1 points Maconochie's principles are based on all of the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: release from prison should be based on time served. Question 9 0 out of 1 points The Crofton system consisted of a series of stages based on the degree of discipline needed to control the offender in prison. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 10 0 out of 1 points The industrial revolution had little impact on the American prison system. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 11 0 out of 1 points Which of the following statements does NOT characterize the reformatory at Elmira? Answer Selected Answer: A goal was to reform youths. Question 12 0 out of 1 points The industrial prison was stopped due to all of the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: the Great Depression. Question 13 0 out of 1 points The Auburn prison system is characterized by all of the following concepts EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: a prison system almost the opposite of the Eastern Penitentiary. Question 14 1 out of 1 points The number of prisoners in custody grew from 320,000 in 1980 to more than 1.5 million in 2010. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 15 1 out of 1 points The Modern Era in prisons began in the 1960s. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 16 1 out of 1 points Hallmarks to prisons in the 1960s include all of the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: solitary living conditions. Question 17 1 out of 1 points Prison industries that provide extensive work for convicts experience relatively few riots. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 18 1 out of 1 points Prison cells attached to a corridor with the back of the cell extending outward towards a peripheral wall are known as: Answer Selected Answer: outside cells. Question 19 1 out of 1 points The 1960s saw the civil rights movement, assassinations of political figures, and an unpopular war created societal pressure that was also felt in prison. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 20 0 out of 1 points All of the following events occurred during the industrial era of prisons EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: the number of inmates increased by 174%. Question 21 1 out of 1 points The first reformatory in America was built in Pennsylvania in 1876. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 22 0 out of 1 points Now that prisons are "total institutions," prison riots are no longer a concern to administration. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 23 1 out of 1 points The Pennsylvania prison system was adopted extensively across America and eventually came to replace the Auburn system. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 24 0 out of 1 points The prison population has not increased since the 1960s. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 25 1 out of 1 points The two major competing concepts or systems of prison designs used within the United States for the majority of the twentieth century were: Answer Selected Answer: the Pennsylvania System and the Auburn System. Question 1 1 out of 1 points The two major competing concepts or systems of prison designs used within the United States for the majority of the twentieth century were: Answer Selected Answer: the Pennsylvania System and the Auburn System. Question 2 1 out of 1 points Prison industries that provide extensive work for convicts experience relatively few riots. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 3 1 out of 1 points Who was the first director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons? Answer Selected Answer: Sanford Bates Question 4 0 out of 1 points The first reformatory in America was built in Pennsylvania in 1876. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 5 1 out of 1 points Prison cells that do not touch the outside walls of the cell block are known as: Answer Selected Answer: inside cells. Question 6 1 out of 1 points The prison population has not increased since the 1960s. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 7 1 out of 1 points The Auburn system's structural design served as the model of prisons built for the next 150 years. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 8 1 out of 1 points Labor unions contributed to the end of the industrial prison. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 9 1 out of 1 points Two major contributions of the Reformatory Era are indeterminate sentencing and parole. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 10 0 out of 1 points The prison population increased since 1960 due to all of the following factors EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: fear of crime. Question 11 1 out of 1 points The Crofton system is based upon biblical scriptures. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 12 1 out of 1 points The Auburn prison system is almost opposite to the Eastern Pennsylvania prison system. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 13 1 out of 1 points Prison riots and other disturbances increased when prisons became "total institutions." Answer Selected Answer: True Question 14 1 out of 1 points The industrial prison was stopped due to all of the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: court decisions. Question 15 1 out of 1 points The number of prisoners in custody grew from 320,000 in 1980 to more than 1.5 million in 2010. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 16 0 out of 1 points All of the following events occurred during the industrial era of prisons EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: the number of inmates increased by 174%. Question 17 0 out of 1 points Most prisons built during the Reformatory Era had all of the following characteristics EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: these prisons abandoned the silent system. Question 18 1 out of 1 points Sanford Bates was the first director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 19 0 out of 1 points The Pennsylvania System is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: solitary confinement. Question 20 1 out of 1 points Now that prisons are "total institutions," prison riots are no longer a concern to administration. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 21 0 out of 1 points Most prisons built during the Reformatory Era had all of the following characteristics EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: these prisons abandoned the silent system. Question 22 1 out of 1 points The stages of the ____________ were solitary confinement, special prison, open institutions, and ticket of leave. Answer Selected Answer: Irish system Question 23 1 out of 1 points The Crofton system consisted of a series of stages based on the degree of discipline needed to control the offender in prison. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 24 1 out of 1 points The Modern Era in prisons began in the 1960s. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 25 1 out of 1 points The two main contributions of the Reformatory Era were: Answer Selected Answer: indeterminate sentencing and parole. Question 1 1 out of 1 points Restorative justice believes that victims of crime are not deserving of services. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 2 0 out of 1 points The amount of money directed to criminal justice agencies has decreased greatly in recent years. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 3 0 out of 1 points Selective incapacitation has all of the following advantages EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: it is a more effective crime prevention technique. Question 4 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is a theory of punishment that argues that the reason for punishment is to stop the specific person and others from doing the same criminal act? Answer Selected Answer: Deterrence Question 5 0 out of 1 points The utilitarian view of retaliation argues which of the following? Answer Selected Answer: Punishment has a specific beneficial and social consequence. Question 6 1 out of 1 points The reformatory movement was developed in the 1920s and 1930s and sought to have correctional personnel treat criminality as physicians treat disease. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 7 0 out of 1 points The expiatory view of retaliation argues which of the following? Answer Selected Answer: Punishment has a specific beneficial and social consequence. Question 8 0 out of 1 points Retribution as punishment historically began when the state sought retaliation and vengeance on behalf of the individual. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 9 1 out of 1 points The prevention ideology contains all of the following concepts EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: expulsion from school to target for outside programming. Question 10 0 out of 1 points To understand why punishment does not reduce crime, one must understand punishment from the perspective of the offender. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 11 1 out of 1 points The correctional unit's approach to corrections is shaped by their correctional ideology and the citizens they serve. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 12 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is a theory of punishment that argues that the reason for punishment is todisable the offender from committing another crime? Answer Selected Answer: Deterrence Question 13 1 out of 1 points The theological view of retaliation argues which of the following? Answer Selected Answer: Retaliation fulfills a religious mission. Question 14 1 out of 1 points Within the last three decades there has been a shift to indeterminate sentencing. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 15 0 out of 1 points Correctional ideology is applied in practice in all of the following ways EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: treatment. Question 16 0 out of 1 points Chronic offenders tend to commit: Answer Selected Answer: over three-quarters of all rapes. Question 17 0 out of 1 points Most correctional ideologies fit into one of the following categories: punishment, treatment, and prevention. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 18 0 out of 1 points Which of the following statements reflects a reason why it is generally asserted that punishment is NOT effective to reduce crime? Answer Selected Answer: The simple application of force does not necessarily promote compliance to the rules of law. Question 19 0 out of 1 points Early penologists found that uniform punishment did not work as well as selective and specialized punishment in prisons for all of the following reasons EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: Uniform punishment generally results in overpunishment and underpunishment. Question 20 0 out of 1 points Both history and science refute the argument that the use of punishment can halt crime. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 21 0 out of 1 points Which sentencing structure underlies the treatment model? Answer Selected Answer: Mandatory minimum Question 22 1 out of 1 points The punishments leveled out by the rules and infractions boards are uniform across offenders. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 23 0 out of 1 points Restorative justice claims all of the following elements listed below EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: does not allow the victim a voice in the criminal justice process. Question 24 0 out of 1 points The theory of disablement sees offenders as disadvantaged, unfortunate persons whose education, training, and discipline have been inadequate. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 25 1 out of 1 points Selective incapacitation has such a low "false positive" rate that it is a promising area in incapacitation policy and practice. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 1 0 out of 1 points Selective incapacitation has all of the following advantages EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: it targets scarce correctional resources to specific offenders. Question 2 1 out of 1 points For deterrence to work, offenders must be continually reminded of their criminal behavior well beyond the period of sanction. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 3 1 out of 1 points The aesthetic view of retaliation argues which of the following? Answer Selected Answer: Punishment resolves social discord created by the offense and re-establishes a sense of harmony through requital. Question 4 1 out of 1 points Selective incapacitation has such a low "false positive" rate that it is a promising area in incapacitation policy and practice. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 5 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is a theory of punishment that argues that the reason for punishment is to stop the specific person and others from doing the same criminal act? Answer Selected Answer: Retaliation Question 6 1 out of 1 points Correctional ideology is applied in practice in all of the following ways EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: stigma of conviction. Question 7 1 out of 1 points Correctional ideologies shape the way "corrections" is practiced. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 8 1 out of 1 points Most correctional ideologies fit into one of the following categories: punishment, treatment, and prevention. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 9 0 out of 1 points Early penologists found that uniform punishment did not work as well as selective and specialized punishment in prisons for all of the following reasons EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: Uniform punishment generally does not stop with the sanction. Question 10 1 out of 1 points Restorative justice believes that victims of crime are not deserving of services. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 11 1 out of 1 points The prevention ideology contains all of the following concepts EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: expulsion from school to target for outside programming. Question 12 1 out of 1 points The correctional unit's approach to corrections is shaped by their correctional ideology and the citizens they serve. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 13 0 out of 1 points This form of deterrence believes that a sanction deters potential offenders by inflicting suffering on actual offenders. Answer Selected Answer: Specific deterrence Question 14 1 out of 1 points Which of the following statements best describes the notion of correctional ideology? Answer Selected Answer: Correctional ideology refers to all practices and procedures that seek to reform offenders. Question 15 1 out of 1 points Restorative justice claims all of the following elements listed below EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: crime creates the obligation to make things right. Question 16 1 out of 1 points Retribution as punishment historically began when the state sought retaliation and vengeance on behalf of the individual. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 17 1 out of 1 points This form of deterrence believes that punishing individual offenders prevents their further criminal behavior. Answer Selected Answer: General deterrence Question 18 0 out of 1 points The expiatory view of retaliation argues which of the following? Answer Selected Answer: Punishment resolves social discord created by the offense and re-establishes a sense of harmony through requital. Question 19 1 out of 1 points Which sentencing structure underlies the treatment model? Answer Selected Answer: Indeterminate Question 20 1 out of 1 points Which of the following statements reflects a reason why it is generally asserted that punishment is NOT effective to reduce crime? Answer Selected Answer: Many targets of punishment have a lot to lose from the deprivations and frustrations of punishment. Question 21 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is a theory of punishment that argues that the reason for punishment is todisable the offender from committing another crime? Answer Selected Answer: Incapacitation Question 22 1 out of 1 points The punishments leveled out by the rules and infractions boards are uniform across offenders. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 23 1 out of 1 points The theory of disablement sees offenders as disadvantaged, unfortunate persons whose education, training, and discipline have been inadequate. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 24 1 out of 1 points Both history and science refute the argument that the use of punishment can halt crime. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 25 1 out of 1 points To understand why punishment does not reduce crime, one must understand punishment from the perspective of the offender. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 1 0 out of 1 points Which sentencing structure has a fixed term of punishment and requires that an offender serve the full time of the sentence minus good time? Answer Selected Answer: Mandatory minimum Question 2 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT one of the sources of pressure in the correctional system that lead to practical problems in sentencing? Answer Selected Answer: Sentencing discrimination Question 3 0 out of 1 points A judge uses all of the following tools to make his or her sentencing decisions EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: intuition. Question 4 0 out of 1 points The dual purpose of sentencing, to institute punishment and reintegrate the offender, creates a paradox in which a balance must be struck between alternatives that focus on the offender and the offense. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 5 0 out of 1 points The foundation of civil rights petitions originates in the __________ Amendment. Answer Selected Answer: Third Question 6 0 out of 1 points The goals of sentencing reform include all of the following EXCEPT to: Answer Selected Answer: increase fairness. Question 7 0 out of 1 points All of the following factors are generally taken into account when prosecutors determine whether or not to dismiss a case from the court system EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: attorneys personal attributes. Question 8 1 out of 1 points The sentencing reform movement did not have a noticeable effect on the criminal justice system. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 9 1 out of 1 points On average, prosecutors bargain away ________ of cases. Answer Selected Answer: 50-90% Question 10 0 out of 1 points The foundation of civil rights petitions originates in the Fifth Amendment. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 11 0 out of 1 points The determination of prison terms has gradually moved from the court system to the legislature. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 12 0 out of 1 points All defendants who come up for sentencing consideration have been convicted of a crime at trial. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 13 0 out of 1 points In recent years legislatures have increased control over the sentencing process of their state. Which of the following is NOT one of the strategies of legislative control? Answer Selected Answer: The introduction of determinate sentencing Question 14 0 out of 1 points The rehabilitation goal of punishment, which dominated the correctional system from 1930 to 1974, was challenged in the early 1970s in all of the following ways EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: concerns about the abuse of discretion by actors in the corrections system. Question 15 1 out of 1 points Which of the following sentences is an example of indeterminate sentencing? Answer Selected Answer: Two to ten years Question 16 1 out of 1 points In general, judges have adequate facts about the offender when issuing a sentence. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 17 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT one of the types of suits filed by prison inmates in federal court? Answer Selected Answer: Civil rights Question 18 0 out of 1 points ________________ is the process of raising additional legal questions in other courts but before case disposition. Answer Selected Answer: Double jeopardy Question 19 0 out of 1 points Determinate sentencing limits "judicial imperialism" in sentencing. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 20 0 out of 1 points Which group constitutes the least represented offenders in state prison? Answer Selected Answer: Violent offenders Question 21 0 out of 1 points Sanctions imposed on felony offenders include fines, restitution, mandatory treatment service, and community service. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 22 0 out of 1 points Which of the following practices would NOT allow correctional decision-makers to unilaterally alleviate their overcrowded prisons? Answer Selected Answer: Indeterminate sentencing Question 23 0 out of 1 points Indeterminate sentencing is most consistent with which goal of punishment? Answer Selected Answer: Retribution Question 24 1 out of 1 points Studies show that in general, deterrence is effective to dissuade would-be offenders. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 25 1 out of 1 points A determinate sentencing structure will eliminate the need for a parole board. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 1 1 out of 1 points The foundation of civil rights petitions originates in the __________ Amendment. Answer Selected Answer: Fourteenth Question 2 0 out of 1 points Indeterminate sentencing allows ________________ to control the length of prison time served. Answer Selected Answer: the judge Question 3 0 out of 1 points Of the cases that are not dismissed by the prosecutor, most receive the sentence that reflects the original charge. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 4 0 out of 1 points The prosecutor has wide discretion in determining whether to file charges. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 5 1 out of 1 points The determination of prison terms has gradually moved from the court system to the legislature. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 6 1 out of 1 points New goals in the correctional system emerged in the 1970s and 1980s. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 7 0 out of 1 points The rehabilitation goal of punishment, which dominated the correctional system from 1930 to 1974, was challenged in the early 1970s in all of the following ways EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: political influence on correctional practices, particularly by forwarding a crime control agenda. Question 8 0 out of 1 points Which group constitutes the least represented offenders in state prison? Answer Selected Answer: Drug offenders Question 9 1 out of 1 points Sanctions imposed on felony offenders include fines, restitution, mandatory treatment service, and community service. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 10 1 out of 1 points Determinate sentencing limits "judicial imperialism" in sentencing. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 11 0 out of 1 points The Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act (CRIPA) was enacted by Congress to: Answer Selected Answer: increase the use of writ of habeas corpus by inmates. Question 12 1 out of 1 points Which of the following sentences is an example of indeterminate sentencing? Answer Selected Answer: Two to ten years Question 13 0 out of 1 points All of the following factors are generally taken into account when prosecutors determine whether or not to dismiss a case from the court system EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: cases strength. Question 14 1 out of 1 points On average, prosecutors bargain away ________ of cases. Answer Selected Answer: 50-90% Question 15 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT one of the sources of pressure in the correctional system that lead to practical problems in sentencing? Answer Selected Answer: Sentencing discrimination Question 16 0 out of 1 points Which of the following practices would NOT allow correctional decision-makers to unilaterally alleviate their overcrowded prisons? Answer Selected Answer: Good time policies Question 17 1 out of 1 points The sentencing reform movement did not have a noticeable effect on the criminal justice system. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 18 1 out of 1 points In general, the number of people who get arrested closely resembles the number of people in the correctional system. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 19 0 out of 1 points The goals of sentencing reform include all of the following EXCEPT to: Answer Selected Answer: lessen discrimination. Question 20 1 out of 1 points All defendants who come up for sentencing consideration have been convicted of a crime at trial. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 21 0 out of 1 points Judicial and administrative sentencing are highly correlated. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 22 1 out of 1 points A determinate sentencing structure will eliminate the need for a parole board. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 23 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT one of the types of suits filed by prison inmates in federal court? Answer Selected Answer: Domestic rights Question 24 1 out of 1 points Studies show that in general, deterrence is effective to dissuade would-be offenders. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 25 1 out of 1 points ________________ is the process of raising additional legal questions in other courts but before case disposition. Answer Selected Answer: Collateral attack Question 1 1 out of 1 points Probation became an official sanction, supported by state statute, in what year? Answer Selected Answer: 1878 Question 2 0 out of 1 points Which type of solution relieves overcrowded prisons by expanding bed space in prisons through renovating existing prisons and/or building new prisons? Answer Selected Answer: Mid-range solutions Question 3 0 out of 1 points The Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) helps judges and probation departments make more informed decisions on all the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: the determination of services needed. Question 4 0 out of 1 points The Gagnon v. Scarpelli decision requires that certain due process considerations be provided tothe probationer in a hearing. This decision mandates that states may provide more but cannot provide less than the due process elements indicated in this decision. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 5 0 out of 1 points Probation is characterized by all of the following statements EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: Recent developments in technology have increased the ability to monitor probationers' behavior. Question 6 0 out of 1 points The relationship between the suspended sentence and probation are accurately depicted in all of the following statements EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: a suspended sentence does not require supervision while probation does. Question 7 0 out of 1 points Sentencing judges are more likely to impose probation when they determine all of the following evidence about the offender EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: this is the offender's first offense. Question 8 1 out of 1 points The first "probation officers" were volunteer welfare workers, court personnel, and part-time personnel service workers. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 9 1 out of 1 points In general, which of the following does NOT contribute to criminal behavior among probationers? Answer Selected Answer: More extensive pro-social ties to family and peers Question 10 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT one of the duties of probation departments? Answer Selected Answer: Restitution management Question 11 1 out of 1 points If enough probation revocations build up, a judge may reconsider technical violations and impose an alternative sanction. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 12 1 out of 1 points Probation is a mid-range solution to reduce overcrowding in prisons. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 13 0 out of 1 points The roles and services of probation departments are characterized by all of the following statements EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: the role of probation is to provide counseling and rehabilitation. Question 14 0 out of 1 points Which type of solution relieves overcrowded prisons through options such as parole, shock probation, good-time credits, education and work-related furloughs, and prerelease to halfway houses? Answer Selected Answer: Brick and mortar solutions Question 15 0 out of 1 points Which special condition of probation is most likely to be imposed on probationers? Answer Selected Answer: Restitution to victims Question 16 0 out of 1 points Juvenile drug abusers are particularly responsive to family intervention approaches to increase post-conviction abstinence. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 17 1 out of 1 points The Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) evaluates the relative amount of risk and the criminogenic needs of the offender. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 18 0 out of 1 points Of the main strategies being considered across the nation to reduce overcrowded prisons, which of the following is most likely NOT to be one of them? Answer Selected Answer: Back-end solutions Question 19 0 out of 1 points Which of the following conditions is NOT considered a specific term of probation? Answer Selected Answer: Obtaining psychological or psychiatric treatment Question 20 0 out of 1 points Felony probation is quite common due, in part, to overcrowded prisons and jails. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 21 0 out of 1 points The two primary roles of probation can be considered diametrically opposed. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 22 1 out of 1 points All of the following are target domains on the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: prosocial factors. Question 23 1 out of 1 points Probation is the most commonly used correctional sentence. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 24 0 out of 1 points Which type of solution relieves overcrowded prisons by advocating punishments such as probation, house arrest, electronic monitoring, shock probation, and intensive supervised probation? Answer Selected Answer: Mid-range solutions Question 25 0 out of 1 points Probation services are provided through a contract system in some states. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 1 1 out of 1 points Juvenile drug abusers are particularly responsive to family intervention approaches to increase post-conviction abstinence. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 2 0 out of 1 points Which of the following conditions is NOT considered a specific term of probation? Answer Selected Answer: Restitution or victim compensation Question 3 0 out of 1 points Probationers have general conditions of probation that they must meet. Which of the following conditions is NOT a general condition of probation? Answer Selected Answer: The probationer must remain drug-free. Question 4 0 out of 1 points Initially, the use of probation spread more rapidly in the adult court system versus the juvenile court system. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 5 0 out of 1 points Which type of solution relieves overcrowded prisons through options such as parole, shock probation, good-time credits, education and work-related furloughs, and prerelease to halfway houses? Answer Selected Answer: Brick and mortar solutions Question 6 1 out of 1 points The Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) helps judges and probation departments make more informed decisions on all the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: the amount of restitution to be paid. Question 7 0 out of 1 points The roles and services of probation departments are characterized by all of the following statements EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: the role of probation is to provide surveillance. Question 8 1 out of 1 points The "Broken Windows" approach to probation calls for all of the following strategies EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: make treatment the central element to probation. Question 9 1 out of 1 points Felony probation is quite common due, in part, to overcrowded prisons and jails. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 10 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT one of the duties of probation departments? Answer Selected Answer: Increase the imposed sentence for technical violations Question 11 1 out of 1 points The two primary roles of probation can be considered diametrically opposed. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 12 0 out of 1 points Drug use is correlated with both male and female violent crime. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 13 1 out of 1 points Sentencing judges are more likely to impose probation when they determine all of the following evidence about the offender EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: the offender has a high risk score. Question 14 0 out of 1 points The Presentence Investigation Report generally includes all of the following information EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: plan of supervision. Question 15 1 out of 1 points Probation is a form of suspended sentence. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 16 1 out of 1 points Which of the following statements does NOT accurately depict the origin and history of probation? Answer Selected Answer: King Henry VIII created the concept of probation. Question 17 1 out of 1 points The relationship between the suspended sentence and probation are accurately depicted in all of the following statements EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: programs and services are provided in relatively equal proportion to individuals with suspended sentences and individuals on probation. Question 18 1 out of 1 points Which special condition of probation is most likely to be imposed on probationers? Answer Selected Answer: Supervision fees Question 19 1 out of 1 points The Gagnon v. Scarpelli decision requires that certain due process considerations be provided tothe probationer in a hearing. This decision mandates that states may provide more but cannot provide less than the due process elements indicated in this decision. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 20 0 out of 1 points Probation is characterized by all of the following statements EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: Probation is characterized by conditions imposed on the offender that govern release into the community. Question 21 0 out of 1 points Which type of solution relieves overcrowded prisons by expanding bed space in prisons through renovating existing prisons and/or building new prisons? Answer Selected Answer: Mid-range solutions Question 22 1 out of 1 points Probation services are provided through a contract system in some states. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 23 1 out of 1 points Probation became an official sanction, supported by state statute, in what year? Answer Selected Answer: 1878 Question 24 1 out of 1 points Probation is a mid-range solution to reduce overcrowding in prisons. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 25 0 out of 1 points All of the following are target domains on the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: financial. Question 1 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT a reason why boot camps have been found to increase recidivism as compared to other sanction types? Answer Selected Answer: Boot camps model aggressive behavior. Question 2 0 out of 1 points Intensive supervised probation is a form of probation with increased supervision and control of the offender. Which of the following statements inaccurately describes this form of punishment? Answer Selected Answer: ISPs generally require multiple weekly contacts between the probationer and the probation officer. Question 3 0 out of 1 points Many offenders were placed on probation in order to promote rehabilitation before the 1970s. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 4 0 out of 1 points General goals of ISPs include all of the following statements EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: reduce recidivism. Question 5 0 out of 1 points Boot camp programs have regimens that can include which of the following? Answer Selected Answer: Specialized education and training Question 6 0 out of 1 points General findings of the state of ISP include all of the following statements EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: ISPs are more widely used than they were 10 years ago. Question 7 1 out of 1 points In America, incarceration is usually the sanction of choice for offenders who are in court for a first offense. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 8 1 out of 1 points Restitution programs are more numerous in the adult than the juvenile justice system. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 9 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT a form of intermediate sanction? Answer Selected Answer: Residential community corrections with curfew restrictions Question 10 1 out of 1 points Which of the following types of correctional control is NOT considered to be a form of intermediate sanction? Answer Selected Answer: Probation Question 11 0 out of 1 points __________is a correctional strategy that focuses on persistent offenders and uses increasingly restrictive alternatives to convince those offenders to desist fromcriminal behavior. Answer Selected Answer: Fines Question 12 0 out of 1 points Boot camps have increased in number over the last twenty years. Which of the following statements is NOT true about boot camps? Answer Selected Answer: Offenders generally enter as volunteers with a reduced duration of sentence incentive. Question 13 0 out of 1 points What is tourniquet sentencing? Answer Selected Answer: When the probation officer enhances probation requirements after the probation term begins Question 14 0 out of 1 points Restitution is a form of punishment supported by all the following reasons EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: restitution can offset victim loss. Question 15 0 out of 1 points Most drug courts treat offenders with substance addiction. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 16 0 out of 1 points Probation is a form of an intermediate sanction. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 17 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT usually called for in ISP programs? Answer Selected Answer: Random and unannounced drug testing Question 18 0 out of 1 points Community service programs have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: this sanction is provided to property offenders. Question 19 0 out of 1 points Drug courts were created to do which of the following? Answer Selected Answer: To lower the rate of recidivism compared to that of ISPs Question 20 0 out of 1 points Drug courts are a correctional strategy that focuses on persistent offenders and uses increasingly restrictive alternatives to convince those offenders to desist fromcriminal behavior. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 21 0 out of 1 points Findings from the use of electronic monitoring include all of the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: the longer the period of monitoring, the higher the odds of success. Question 22 0 out of 1 points Boot camps generally have been found to increase recidivism. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 23 1 out of 1 points Home detention may be the up-and-coming sentence of choice for nonviolent offenders due to its cost savings. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 24 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT one of the advantages that home detention has over incarceration? Answer Selected Answer: Home detention may cause "net widening" in punishment. Question 25 0 out of 1 points Which of the following statements does NOT depict day reporting centers? Answer Selected Answer: The primary focus is on treatment. Question 1 1 out of 1 points Drug courts are a correctional strategy that focuses on persistent offenders and uses increasingly restrictive alternatives to convince those offenders to desist fromcriminal behavior. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 2 1 out of 1 points Intermediate sanctions use increased surveillance and tighter controls than those for probation. Whichof the following are accurate arguments for and against the use of intermediate sanctions? Answer Selected Answer: Advocates against intermediate sanctions argue that it inhibits the use of rehabilitation with offenders. Question 3 0 out of 1 points Drug courts may offer a dismissal of charges in exchange for entering the court's drug treatment program. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 4 1 out of 1 points Boot camps generally have been found to increase recidivism. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 5 0 out of 1 points Which of the following statements does NOT depict day reporting centers? Answer Selected Answer: These centers demand more contact with clients than available through ISPs. Question 6 1 out of 1 points General findings of the state of ISP include all of the following statements EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: ISPs cost a little less than originally predicted. Question 7 1 out of 1 points What is tourniquet sentencing? Answer Selected Answer: An increase in supervision and program participation by the judge due to noncompliance Question 8 1 out of 1 points Drug courts have been slow to catch on as a type of sanction. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 9 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT one of the advantages that home detention has over incarceration? Answer Selected Answer: Home detention may cause "net widening" in punishment. Question 10 1 out of 1 points In America, incarceration is usually the sanction of choice for offenders who are in court for a first offense. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 11 1 out of 1 points Community service programs have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: this sanction provides a small wage per hour to the offender. Question 12 1 out of 1 points Many offenders were placed on probation in order to promote rehabilitation before the 1970s. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 13 1 out of 1 points Home detention may be the up-and-coming sentence of choice for nonviolent offenders due to its cost savings. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 14 1 out of 1 points Findings from the use of electronic monitoring include all of the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: electronic monitoring terms average almost 1 year. Question 15 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT usually called for in ISP programs? Answer Selected Answer: Offender is required to keep a log on all personal contacts for every 24-hour period Question 16 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT a reason why boot camps have been found to increase recidivism as compared to other sanction types? Answer Selected Answer: Boot camps are able to separately treat low, medium, and high-risk offenders. Question 17 0 out of 1 points General goals of ISPs include all of the following statements EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: divert offenders from prison. Question 18 0 out of 1 points Boot camps have increased in number over the last twenty years. Which of the following statements is NOT true about boot camps? Answer Selected Answer: These camps typically target young nonviolent offenders. Question 19 1 out of 1 points Probation is a form of an intermediate sanction. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 20 1 out of 1 points __________is community supervision that uses electronic devises or GPS surveillance to maintain surveillance on parolees. Answer Selected Answer: Electronic parole Question 21 0 out of 1 points Compensating the victim for loss or injury is known as recidivism. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 22 1 out of 1 points Most drug courts treat offenders with substance addiction. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 23 0 out of 1 points There is little evidence demonstrating that shock probation reduces recidivism. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 24 1 out of 1 points A study in New York found that, on average, drug courts reduced the reconviction rate by almost 30%. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 25 1 out of 1 points ISPs are generally used in tourniquet sentencing. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 1 1 out of 1 points There seems to be a causal relationship between autocratic prison administration styles and institutional disturbances. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 2 1 out of 1 points All of the following are reasons why it is difficult to hire and retain qualified personnel in the corrections system EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: minimum education level. Question 3 1 out of 1 points What is TRUE of correctional jobs? Answer Selected Answer: All of the above Question 4 0 out of 1 points Prisons have adopted a paramilitary model in all of the following ways EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: the primary mission of security and control. Question 5 1 out of 1 points What position is most critical to the day-to-day management of a prison? Answer Selected Answer: Correctional officer Question 6 0 out of 1 points Blue flus occur because correctional officers cannot strike. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 7 1 out of 1 points Custody refers to the level of treatment placed on an offender in an institution. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 8 0 out of 1 points What is a sally port? Answer Selected Answer: A derogatory term for an inmate Question 9 0 out of 1 points Bureaucratic control has all of the following characteristics EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: organizational processes take precedence over the individual. Question 10 0 out of 1 points It is generally considered valid that the more correctional officers treat inmates like dangerous people, the more dangerous they will become (junkyard dog theory). Answer Selected Answer: False Question 11 0 out of 1 points There are three levels of security for inmates. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 12 1 out of 1 points Inmates in maximum-security institutions are generally housed in honor camps or farms. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 13 1 out of 1 points In reality, running the day-to-day affairs of the prison does not lie with the warden but with which deputy warden? Answer Selected Answer: Custody deputy warden Question 14 0 out of 1 points Which of the following, if any, is a nonlethal weapon in prisons? Answer Selected Answer: computerized inmate tracking system Question 15 1 out of 1 points The primary mission for any jail is to "protect the public." Answer Selected Answer: True Question 16 1 out of 1 points Which of the following statements best defines all contraband? Answer Selected Answer: Contraband is anything not authorized by institutional rules. Question 17 0 out of 1 points The main differences between inmates or institutions classified as medium and those classifiedas minimum are all of the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: unlike medium-security institutions, minimum-security institutions serve as a pathway to graduated release. Question 18 0 out of 1 points What is the central duty of the assistant superintendent for custody or the deputy warden for custody? Answer Selected Answer: Oversee the administrative duties of the prison. Question 19 0 out of 1 points Unit team management is one way to lessen the conflicts between treatment and custody. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 20 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT a conclusion we can draw regarding prison rule violations? Answer Selected Answer: Typically, medium-security facilities have higher rates of rule infractions than do maximum facilities. Question 21 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is the primary way in whichoffenders' whereabouts are determined? Answer Selected Answer: Electronic monitoring Question 22 1 out of 1 points Flight from prison facilities and illegal absences from institutions are technically escapes. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 23 0 out of 1 points Contraband is a complicated issue that requires a broad and clear definition of what it is and the use of common sense by trained correctional officers. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 24 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT a level of custody placed on the offender? Answer Selected Answer: Self-monitored Question 25 0 out of 1 points A cell search to detect and control contraband is a shakedown. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 1 1 out of 1 points Custody refers to the level of treatment placed on an offender in an institution. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 2 1 out of 1 points Flight from prison facilities and illegal absences from institutions are technically escapes. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 3 0 out of 1 points What is a sally port? Answer Selected Answer: The main entrance door to a prison Question 4 1 out of 1 points Which of the following, if any, is a nonlethal weapon in prisons? Answer Selected Answer: All of the above Question 5 0 out of 1 points The most common type of search to prevent contraband entry into institutions is the frisk search. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 6 0 out of 1 points A prison warden (superintendent) is typically responsible for all of the following duties EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: overseeing prison operations. Question 7 0 out of 1 points The cost effectiveness of electrified fences comes from theirreduced personnel costs. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 8 1 out of 1 points The primary mission for any jail is to "protect the public." Answer Selected Answer: True Question 9 0 out of 1 points Prisons have adopted a paramilitary model in all of the following ways EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: use of professional titles. Question 10 1 out of 1 points Blue flus occur because correctional officers cannot strike. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 11 0 out of 1 points Bureaucratic control has all of the following characteristics EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: coercive rules that control behavior. Question 12 0 out of 1 points What is the central duty of the assistant superintendent for custody or the deputy warden for custody? Answer Selected Answer: Create new training techniques for all levels of staff. Question 13 1 out of 1 points Unit team management is one way to lessen the conflicts between treatment and custody. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 14 0 out of 1 points Which of the following corrections staff has 24-hour contact with inmates? Answer Selected Answer: Treatment Question 15 1 out of 1 points Inmates in maximum-security institutions are generally housed in honor camps or farms. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 16 1 out of 1 points All of the following are reasons why it is difficult to hire and retain qualified personnel in the corrections system EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: minimum education level. Question 17 1 out of 1 points There seems to be a causal relationship between autocratic prison administration styles and institutional disturbances. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 18 0 out of 1 points Maximum-security levels are characterized by all of the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: a correctional officer must escort offenders in the general prison. Question 19 0 out of 1 points Treatment has always been on the agenda of correctional management. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 20 1 out of 1 points There are three levels of security for inmates. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 21 1 out of 1 points Contraband is a complicated issue that requires a broad and clear definition of what it is and the use of common sense by trained correctional officers. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 22 1 out of 1 points In reality, running the day-to-day affairs of the prison does not lie with the warden but with which deputy warden? Answer Selected Answer: Custody deputy warden Question 23 0 out of 1 points Most escapes from prison happen in low-security institutions. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 24 1 out of 1 points What is TRUE of correctional jobs? Answer Selected Answer: All of the above Question 25 1 out of 1 points A cell search to detect and control contraband is a shakedown. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 1 1 out of 1 points A _______________ is a birdcage-like instrument placed over an offender's head that extends iron spikes into the offender s mouth to prevent movement. Answer Selected Answer: brank Question 2 1 out of 1 points Corporal and capital punishment were not popular during the Age of Enlightenment. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 3 1 out of 1 points St. Thomas Aquinas differentiated three types of law (1) external law, (2) internal law, and (3) social law. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 4 1 out of 1 points The extensive use of capital and corporal punishment during the Middle Ages reflected a belief that punishment would __________. Answer Selected Answer: deter potential wrongdoers. Question 5 1 out of 1 points __________________ is the custom of atonement for wrongs by payment to appease the victim's family or tribe. Answer Selected Answer: Lex salica Question 6 1 out of 1 points The punishment of banishment was replaced by all of the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: transportation. Question 7 1 out of 1 points Which of the following philosophers developed the hedonistic calculus? Answer Selected Answer: Jeremy Bentham Question 8 1 out of 1 points What was the first set of codified laws based on vengeance? Answer Selected Answer: Sumerian Code Question 9 0 out of 1 points Who argued that that the crime rate would go down if the amount of punishment were carefully calibrated to deter potential offenders and maximize pleasure? Answer Selected Answer: King Richard III Question 10 1 out of 1 points The most common forms of state punishment over the centuries have been death and corporal punishment. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 11 1 out of 1 points This idea assumes that individuals choose their actions, good or bad, and thus can be held fully responsible for them. Answer Selected Answer: Free will Question 12 1 out of 1 points Outlawry was the first punishment imposed by society. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 13 1 out of 1 points ________________ suggested that criminal laws should be organized so that the punishment for any act would outweigh the pleasure that would be derived from the act. Answer Selected Answer: Jeremy Bentham Question 14 1 out of 1 points The use of torture to gain confessions and repentance occurred in: Answer Selected Answer: the Inquisition. Question 15 1 out of 1 points Rehabilitation was a major goal of punishment in the early history of corrections. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 16 1 out of 1 points ________________ is recognized as the founder of the Classical School of criminology. Answer Selected Answer: Cesare Beccaria Question 17 0 out of 1 points Cruel and barbarous punishment has been founded in all of the following notions EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: expiate transgressions against God. Question 18 0 out of 1 points Methods of discipline that have been used in the Auburn system include all of the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: lockstep formation to maintain control over offenders. Question 19 1 out of 1 points The prison population has not increased since the 1960s. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 20 1 out of 1 points Hallmarks to prisons in the 1960s include all of the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: solitary living conditions. Question 21 1 out of 1 points An ombudsman is a prison official who is responsible to politicians to control the behavior of inmates. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 22 1 out of 1 points Prison industries that provide extensive work for convicts experience relatively few riots. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 23 1 out of 1 points Who was the first director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons? Answer Selected Answer: Sanford Bates Question 24 1 out of 1 points The prison population increased since 1960 due to all of the following factors EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: medical treatment. Question 25 1 out of 1 points The Crofton system is based upon biblical scriptures. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 26 1 out of 1 points The Auburn prison system is almost opposite to the Eastern Pennsylvania prison system. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 27 1 out of 1 points Two major contributions of the Reformatory Era are indeterminate sentencing and parole. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 28 1 out of 1 points Which of the following statements does NOT characterize the reformatory at Elmira? Answer Selected Answer: Food deprivation is necessary to control behavior. Question 29 1 out of 1 points The period of transition, from 1935 to 1960, was marked by all of the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: the dismantling of the "fortress" types prisons. Question 30 1 out of 1 points Sanford Bates was the first director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 31 1 out of 1 points The industrial revolution had little impact on the American prison system. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 32 1 out of 1 points All of the following events occurred during the industrial era of prisons EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: a "softening" in the treatment of offenders was prevalent in most major institutions. Question 33 1 out of 1 points The Auburn system's structural design served as the model of prisons built for the next 150 years. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 34 0 out of 1 points Most prisons built during the Reformatory Era had all of the following characteristics EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: these prisons abandoned the silent system. Question 35 0 out of 1 points The utilitarian view of retaliation argues which of the following? Answer Selected Answer: Punishment has a specific beneficial and social consequence. Question 36 1 out of 1 points This form of deterrence believes that a sanction deters potential offenders by inflicting suffering on actual offenders. Answer Selected Answer: General deterrence Question 37 1 out of 1 points The aesthetic view of retaliation argues which of the following? Answer Selected Answer: Punishment resolves social discord created by the offense and re-establishes a sense of harmony through requital. Question 38 1 out of 1 points Retribution as punishment historically began when the state sought retaliation and vengeance on behalf of the individual. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 39 1 out of 1 points Restorative justice claims all of the following elements listed below EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: crime creates the obligation to make things right. Question 40 1 out of 1 points In areas that administratively increase the swiftness, certainty, and harshness of punishment, the crime rate commensurately drops. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 41 1 out of 1 points Restorative justice believes that victims of crime are not deserving of services. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 42 1 out of 1 points The correctional unit's approach to corrections is shaped by their correctional ideology and the citizens they serve. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 43 1 out of 1 points The reformatory movement was developed in the 1920s and 1930s and sought to have correctional personnel treat criminality as physicians treat disease. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 44 1 out of 1 points Which of the following statements best describes the notion of correctional ideology? Answer Selected Answer: Correctional ideology refers to all practices and procedures that seek to reform offenders. Question 45 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is a theory of punishment that argues that the reason for punishment is to stop the specific person and others from doing the same criminal act? Answer Selected Answer: Quid pro quo Question 46 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is a theory of punishment that argues that the reason for punishment is todisable the offender from committing another crime? Answer Selected Answer: Incapacitation Question 47 0.25 out of 1 points Match each correctional ideology listed in Column 1 to its definition in Column 2. Column 1 Column 2 *1. Punishment ideology a. This ideology has a dual focus: on the individual and the environment in which he or she lives. *2. Restorative justice b. Using treatment to restore an offender to levels of social functioning not yet attained. *3. Prevention ideology c. Offenders must pay for their offense. *4. Rehabilitation ideology d. Philosophy that works to satisfy the basic needs of the individual crime victims, the community, and offenders. Answer Question Selected Match 1 B. D 2 D. B 3 C. A 4 A. C Question 48 1 out of 1 points Early penologists found that uniform punishment did not work as well as selective and specialized punishment in prisons for all of the following reasons EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: Uniform punishment generally results in proportional punishment. Question 49 1 out of 1 points The punishments leveled out by the rules and infractions boards are uniform across offenders. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 50 1 out of 1 points The theory of disablement sees offenders as disadvantaged, unfortunate persons whose education, training, and discipline have been inadequate. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 51 1 out of 1 points Correctional ideology is applied in practice in all of the following ways EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: stigma of conviction. Question 52 1 out of 1 points Indeterminate sentencing is most consistent with which goal of punishment? Answer Selected Answer: Rehabilitation Question 53 1 out of 1 points Judicial and administrative sentencing processes share common criteria in decision-making. Which of the following is NOT one of these common criteria? Answer Selected Answer: The use of good time Question 54 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT one of the sources of pressure in the correctional system that lead to practical problems in sentencing? Answer Selected Answer: Sentencing discrimination Question 55 1 out of 1 points The Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act (CRIPA) was enacted by Congress to: Answer Selected Answer: reduce the number of civil rights petitions filed in federal courts. Question 56 1 out of 1 points As advocated by Walter C. Reckless, a presentence investigation report or PSI should include all of the following information EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: administrative policies of sentences. Question 57 0 out of 1 points All of the following factors are generally taken into account when prosecutors determine whether or not to dismiss a case from the court system EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: attorneys personal attributes. Question 58 0 out of 1 points Which of the following practices would NOT allow correctional decision-makers to unilaterally alleviate their overcrowded prisons? Answer Selected Answer: Parole boards Question 59 1 out of 1 points The foundation of civil rights petitions originates in the __________ Amendment. Answer Selected Answer: Fourteenth Question 60 1 out of 1 points The most common explanations for pleabargaining are all of the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: the benevolence of prosecutorial discretion. Question 61 0 out of 1 points Which group constitutes the least represented offenders in state prison? Answer Selected Answer: Property offenders Question 62 1 out of 1 points Which sentencing structure has a fixed term of punishment and requires that an offender serve the full time of the sentence minus good time? Answer Selected Answer: Determinate Question 63 1 out of 1 points Sanctions imposed on felony offenders include fines, restitution, mandatory treatment service, and community service. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 64 1 out of 1 points ________________ is the process of raising additional legal questions in other courts but before case disposition. Answer Selected Answer: Collateral attack Question 65 1 out of 1 points New goals in the correctional system emerged in the 1970s and 1980s. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 66 0.125 out of 1 points Match each listed problem in setting prison terms in Column 1 to its definition in Column 2. Column 1 Column 2 1. Determinate sentencing a. Statutes by which the legislatures require a prison term always to be imposed for convictions for certain offenses or offenders. 2. Mandatory prison terms b. Statutes that allow for reducing a prison term based on an offender's behavior in prison. 3. Sentencing guidelines c. A sentencing mechanism fixed by the sentencing commission that identifies maximum and minimum sentences for punishments to be imposed by a judge. 4. Parole guidelines d. Policies that relieve overpopulation by systematically making inmates eligible for release sooner. 5. Good-time policies e. Procedures designed to structure early release decisions based on measureable offense criteria. 6. Emergency crowding provisions f. A flat sentence of punishment imposed by the sentencing court. 7. Indeterminate sentencing g. A sentence with a minimum and a maximum punishment imposed. The parole boards make the determination of time served. 8. Presumptive sentencing h. System of sentencing that imposed a predefined sentence length based on criminal history and crime severity. Answer Question Selected Match 1 F. D 2 A. F 3 H. C 4 E. B 5 B. A 6 D. E 7 G. G 8 C. H Question 67 1 out of 1 points The foundation of civil rights petitions originates in the Fifth Amendment. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 68 1 out of 1 points The goals of sentencing reform include all of the following EXCEPT to: Answer Selected Answer: increase retribution. Question 69 1 out of 1 points Indeterminate sentencing allows ________________ to control the length of prison time served. Answer Selected Answer: the corrections system Question 70 1 out of 1 points Which special condition of probation is most likely to be imposed on probationers? Answer Selected Answer: Supervision fees Question 71 1 out of 1 points Initially, the use of probation spread more rapidly in the adult court system versus the juvenile court system. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 72 1 out of 1 points All of the following are target domains on the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: prosocial factors. Question 73 0 out of 1 points Probation is characterized by all of the following statements EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: Probation is not a sanction of confinement. Question 74 1 out of 1 points Drug use is correlated with both male and female violent crime. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 75 1 out of 1 points Probation became an official sanction, supported by state statute, in what year? Answer Selected Answer: 1878 Question 76 1 out of 1 points Probation is a mid-range solution to reduce overcrowding in prisons. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 77 0 out of 1 points Match each listed stage in the sentencing process in Column 1 to its definition in Column 2. Column 1 Column 2 *1. Sentencing hearing a. Document that results from an investigation undertaken by a court authorized officer, designed to provide information on the defendant, so the judge can make an informed sentencing decision. *2. Risk and needs assessment b. Additional punishments ordered by the courts to probationers. *3. Presentence investigation report c. Consider the presentence investigation report's contents, recommendations, statements by prosecution and defense counsel, statements from victims, and other evidence. *4. Conditions of probation d. Instrument used to determine the probability of recidivism. *5. Technical probation violation e. Change of sentence from probation to another correctional control status. *6. Probation revocation f. Probation sentence change due to charges that the offender violated the rules imposed by the court, but not by committing a new crime. Answer Question Selected Match 1 C. A 2 D. B 3 A. C 4 B. D 5 F. E 6 E. F Question 78 1 out of 1 points The Gagnon v. Scarpelli decision governs how probation may be withdrawn from an offender. This decision created all of the following due process rules EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: the hearing is before a jury. Question 79 0 out of 1 points Judges follow the sentencing recommendations from the Presentence Investigation Report 35% of the time. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 80 1 out of 1 points The Gagnon v. Scarpelli decision requires that certain due process considerations be provided tothe probationer in a hearing. This decision mandates that states may provide more but cannot provide less than the due process elements indicated in this decision. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 81 0 out of 1 points Of the main strategies being considered across the nation to reduce overcrowded prisons, which of the following is most likely NOT to be one of them? Answer Selected Answer: Brick and mortar solutions Question 82 1 out of 1 points The two primary roles of probation can be considered diametrically opposed. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 83 1 out of 1 points If enough probation revocations build up, a judge may reconsider technical violations and impose an alternative sanction. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 84 0 out of 1 points Probation is successfully completed more than 90% of the time. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 85 1 out of 1 points The "Broken Windows" approach to probation calls for all of the following strategies EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: make treatment the central element to probation. Question 86 1 out of 1 points The relationship between the suspended sentence and probation are accurately depicted in all of the following statements EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: programs and services are provided in relatively equal proportion to individuals with suspended sentences and individuals on probation. Question 87 1 out of 1 points Intermediate sanctions use increased surveillance and tighter controls than those for probation. Whichof the following are accurate arguments for and against the use of intermediate sanctions? Answer Selected Answer: Advocates against intermediate sanctions argue that it inhibits the use of rehabilitation with offenders. Question 88 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT usually called for in ISP programs? Answer Selected Answer: Offender is required to keep a log on all personal contacts for every 24-hour period Question 89 1 out of 1 points Many offenders were placed on probation in order to promote rehabilitation before the 1970s. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 90 1 out of 1 points Community residential centers are community supervision that uses electronic devices or GPS surveillance to maintain surveillance on parolees. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 91 0 out of 1 points Which of the following statements does NOT depict day reporting centers? Answer Selected Answer: A primary goal is to reduce prison crowding. Question 92 1 out of 1 points Boot camp programs have regimens that can include which of the following? Answer Selected Answer: All of the above Question 93 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT one of the advantages that home detention has over incarceration? Answer Selected Answer: Home detention may cause "net widening" in punishment. Question 94 1 out of 1 points Home detention may be the up-and-coming sentence of choice for nonviolent offenders due to its cost savings. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 95 0 out of 1 points Restitution is a form of punishment supported by all the following reasons EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: restitution forces an offender to accept responsibility for his or her actions. Question 96 1 out of 1 points A study in New York found that, on average, drug courts reduced the reconviction rate by almost 30%. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 97 1 out of 1 points General findings of the state of ISP include all of the following statements EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: ISPs cost a little less than originally predicted. Question 98 1 out of 1 points Drug courts were created to do which of the following? Answer Selected Answer: To divert drug-abusing offenders to intensively monitored treatment instead of incarceration Question 99 1 out of 1 points Drug courts may offer a dismissal of charges in exchange for entering the court's drug treatment program. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 100 0 out of 1 points Match each intermediate sanction listed in Column 1 to its definition in Column 2. Column 1 Column 2 *1. Restitution a. Intermediate sanction requiring increased supervision for probationers. *2. Intensive supervised probation b. Sentence whereby offenders serve at least some of their sentence in their own domicile. *3. Tourniquet sentencing c. Problem-solving courts that require offenders to participate in court-mandated treatment programs. *4. Drug courts d. Requirement that offender repay the victim. *5. Community service programs e. A residential facility that provides room and board as well as rehabilitation programming. *6. Home detention f. When a judge increases the sanctions and conditions imposed on an offender. *7. Halfway houses g. Community supervision techniques that use devices to maintain surveillance on parolees. *8. Electronic monitoring h. Requiring offenders to provide services to the public to help repair the harm they have committed. Answer Question Selected Match 1 D. C 2 A. D 3 F. B 4 C. F 5 H. G 6 B. A 7 E. H 8 G. E Question 101 1 out of 1 points __________is a correctional strategy that focuses on persistent offenders and uses increasingly restrictive alternatives to convince those offenders to desist fromcriminal behavior. Answer Selected Answer: Risk-management Question 102 1 out of 1 points Findings from the use of electronic monitoring include all of the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: electronic monitoring terms average almost 1 year. Question 103 1 out of 1 points What is tourniquet sentencing? Answer Selected Answer: An increase in supervision and program participation by the judge due to noncompliance Question 104 0 out of 1 points Match each listed custodial technique listed in Column 1 to its definition in Column 2. Column 1 Column 2 *1. Count a. Cell search to detect and control contraband. *2. Prison rules b. Process of detecting inmate contraband by visual inspection of the bodies of inmates. *3. Contraband c. Process of detecting inmate contraband by manual search of the bodies of inmates. *4. Shakedowns d. Method used to verify that all inmates are present in prison. *5. Frisk search e. Any object forbidden in prison. *6. Strip search f. Written documents designed to control inmate behaviors. Answer Question Selected Match 1 D. A 2 F. B 3 E. C 4 A. D 5 C. E 6 B. F Question 105 1 out of 1 points Bureaucratic control has all of the following characteristics EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: the individual is housed, moved, transferred, and released based on his or her personal situation. Question 106 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT a level of custody placed on the offender? Answer Selected Answer: Self-monitored Question 107 1 out of 1 points In reality, running the day-to-day affairs of the prison does not lie with the warden but with which deputy warden? Answer Selected Answer: Custody deputy warden Question 108 1 out of 1 points Flight from prison facilities and illegal absences from institutions are technically escapes. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 109 1 out of 1 points Which of the following, if any, is a nonlethal weapon in prisons? Answer Selected Answer: All of the above Question 110 1 out of 1 points It is generally considered valid that the more correctional officers treat inmates like dangerous people, the more dangerous they will become (junkyard dog theory). Answer Selected Answer: True Question 111 1 out of 1 points There are three levels of security for inmates. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 112 1 out of 1 points What is TRUE of correctional jobs? Answer Selected Answer: All of the above Question 113 1 out of 1 points All of the following are reasons why it is difficult to hire and retain qualified personnel in the corrections system EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: minimum education level. Question 114 0 out of 1 points Two of the four major gangs in California's prisons are two Chicano gangs: Nostra Familia and the __________. Answer Selected Answer: playboys Question 115 1 out of 1 points The main differences between inmates or institutions classified as medium and those classifiedas minimum are all of the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: unlike medium-security institutions, there is much more movement within a minimum-security facility. Question 116 0 out of 1 points Which of the following statements describes the problem faced by administrators in an effort to control and rehabilitate offenders? Answer Selected Answer: Often the public is nonsupportive of reformation of the inmate population, so administrations do not do any of these activities. Question 117 1 out of 1 points What is a sally port? Answer Selected Answer: A double gate that controls all transportation in and out of the prison perimeter Question 118 1 out of 1 points Unit team management is one way to lessen the conflicts between treatment and custody. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 119 1 out of 1 points A cell search to detect and control contraband is a shakedown. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 120 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is the primary way in whichoffenders' whereabouts are determined? Answer Selected Answer: Counts Question 1 0 out of 1 points Which is NOT one of the many barriers to effective educational programs? Answer Selected Answer: Lack of educational materials Question 2 0 out of 1 points The recent use of treatment involves meta analysis, which can best be characterized by which of the following? Answer Selected Answer: All of the above Question 3 0 out of 1 points The main objective of __________ is to return to the offender to the community as a responsible and productive citizen, rather than a shunned ex-con with little hope for success. Answer Selected Answer: vocational training Question 4 0 out of 1 points Which of the following statements are NOT true about education services in prison? Answer Selected Answer: Most state correctional systems legislatively mandate educational services for inmates. Question 5 0 out of 1 points In general, the incoming inmate has more medical and dental needs than does the average personin society. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 6 1 out of 1 points Every offender has the right to treatment in a correctional institution in the United States. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 7 1 out of 1 points The general treatment model has all of the following goals EXCEPT which? Answer Selected Answer: Teaches religious doctrine Question 8 0 out of 1 points All of the following are reasons why custody concerns outweigh those of treatment in institutions EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: custody issues are immediate and mandatory. Question 9 0 out of 1 points Correctional administrators are victims of two realities in treatment: society is uncertain about the causes of and solutions to criminal behavior and the social sciences have historically been unable to provide a frame of reference for this solution. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 10 0 out of 1 points A theme in the management of treatment is that administration generally isolates and withdraws from publicizing treatment programs to protect themselves from public scrutiny and judgment. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 11 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT true about personnel who administer medical services or medical programs? Answer Selected Answer: Qualified medical personnel to serve inmates are generally in short supply across the country Question 12 0 out of 1 points How do cognitive interventions work? Answer Selected Answer: They help make an offender "school smart." Question 13 0 out of 1 points One example of cognitive intervention is anger management. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 14 1 out of 1 points There is little evidence that correctional treatment has ever been effective. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 15 1 out of 1 points All of the following are incendiary situations that treatment and custody personnel in institutions may find that their different orientations play out EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: deputy warden for treatment is hired with training in the social sciences. Question 16 0 out of 1 points All of the following are different types of treatment services EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: therapeutic communities Question 17 0 out of 1 points The treatment model of corrections generally divides treatment services into three types. Which of the following is NOT one of them? Answer Selected Answer: Educational Question 18 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT one of goals of prison industry Answer Selected Answer: Teach inmates a skill Question 19 1 out of 1 points The main point of custody is to prepare offenders to return to society while the main point of treatment is to provide protection to society. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 20 0 out of 1 points A correctional leader must generally deal with bifurcated correctional staff who fall into one of two camps: those who consider themselves custody and security officers versus those who consider themselves treatment and programming officers. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 21 0 out of 1 points There is a movement to train prison chaplains in behavioral sciences and integrate them into treatment. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 22 1 out of 1 points Most offenders are given dental care in prison. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 23 0 out of 1 points The tendency to view treatment in terms of restraint and reformation has hurt treatment services in all of the following ways EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: administrators target resources primarily on the offender in lieu of the community Question 24 0 out of 1 points Religion services in prison suffer from all of the following problems EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: prison chaplainry is not a particularly desirable job in the field. Question 25 0 out of 1 points The restraint and reformation theme of treatment argues that offenders are morally, psychologically, and/or physically inferior human beings who need to be "fixed" and, in the meantime, controlled. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 1 0 out of 1 points The federal government has controlled prison industry and labor in all of the following ways EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: federal law restricting interstate prison industrial goods. Question 2 0 out of 1 points All of the following are different types of treatment services EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: religious activities. Question 3 1 out of 1 points All of the following are incendiary situations that treatment and custody personnel in institutions may find that their different orientations play out EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: deputy warden for treatment is hired with training in the social sciences. Question 4 1 out of 1 points All of the following are major medical problems faced by prison and jail inmates today EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: smallpox. Question 5 1 out of 1 points The main point of custody is to prepare offenders to return to society while the main point of treatment is to provide protection to society. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 6 0 out of 1 points Administrators take advantage of an uninformed and uncaring public by favoring "wars" against crime, criminals, and drugs instead of devoting time and resources to the treatment of offenders. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 7 1 out of 1 points In general, the incoming inmate has more medical and dental needs than does the average personin society. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 8 1 out of 1 points Most inmates in educational programs in institutions obtain college degrees. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 9 0 out of 1 points How do cognitive interventions work? Answer Selected Answer: They increase an offender's IQ. Question 10 0 out of 1 points The classification of inmates is generally done for treatment concerns in order to determine which offenders need which services. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 11 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT one of goals of prison industry Answer Selected Answer: Limit the market to trade goods Question 12 1 out of 1 points A theme in the management of treatment is that administration generally isolates and withdraws from publicizing treatment programs to protect themselves from public scrutiny and judgment. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 13 0 out of 1 points The main objective of __________ is to return to the offender to the community as a responsible and productive citizen, rather than a shunned ex-con with little hope for success. Answer Selected Answer: correctional chaplaincy Question 14 0 out of 1 points Which of the following statements are NOT true about education services in prison? Answer Selected Answer: Some inmates are able to pursue two-year and four-year degrees while incarcerated. Question 15 0 out of 1 points Which is NOT one of the many barriers to effective educational programs? Answer Selected Answer: Teacher shortages Question 16 1 out of 1 points All of the following are reasons why custody concerns outweigh those of treatment in institutions EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: when one of the treatment staff is sick, the position must be filled in order to maintain minimal critical staffing. Question 17 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT one of the beneficial effects to private company and prison collaborations? Answer Selected Answer: Inmates continue to pay taxes on all wages earned Question 18 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT true about personnel who administer medical services or medical programs? Answer Selected Answer: Medical issues are a major source of inmate complaints and administration headaches Question 19 1 out of 1 points There is little evidence that correctional treatment has ever been effective. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 20 1 out of 1 points One example of cognitive intervention is anger management. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 21 0 out of 1 points Religion services in prison suffer from all of the following problems EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: one chaplain, who is traditionally trained in only one spiritual tradition, needs to provide spiritual services to inmates of all faiths. Question 22 1 out of 1 points The general treatment model has all of the following goals EXCEPT which? Answer Selected Answer: Teaches religious doctrine Question 23 1 out of 1 points There are three persistent attributes of correctional management of treatment services. Which of the following is NOT one of these? Answer Selected Answer: Failure of social sciences Question 24 0 out of 1 points On average (national), what percentage of expenditures is for treatment services in correctional institutions? Answer Selected Answer: 20% Question 25 1 out of 1 points The restraint and reformation theme of treatment argues that offenders are morally, psychologically, and/or physically inferior human beings who need to be "fixed" and, in the meantime, controlled. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 1 1 out of 1 points The accused and the convicted, not to mention the guilty and the innocent, are housed in prisons. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 2 1 out of 1 points A "weekender" refers to an inmate who isconfined in a detention facilityonly on the weekends. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 3 0 out of 1 points More than half of all persons in local jails are: Answer Selected Answer: convicted felons. Question 4 0 out of 1 points Which alternative to jail serves to lessen the negative impact of short-term incarceration andallow offenders to retain current employment? Answer Selected Answer: Community work orders Question 5 1 out of 1 points New-generation jails employ intermittent supervision of inmates. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 6 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT a radical departure from the traditional jail? Answer Selected Answer: Architecture Question 7 0 out of 1 points Which of these is NOT a reason for overcrowding in America's jails. Answer Selected Answer: Get-tough policies Question 8 1 out of 1 points Which state was the first to establish standards for jails? Answer Selected Answer: Maine Question 9 0 out of 1 points The 2007 adult jail population consisted predominantly of females. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 10 1 out of 1 points Jails house only convicted offenders. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 11 0 out of 1 points The purpose of jails, as originally conceived, was to detain suspected or accused offenders until they could be brought before a court. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 12 0 out of 1 points The overall number of jails has declined, due to the decrease in jail beds/cells. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 13 0 out of 1 points In _____-generation new jails, cells continue to be laid out in a line, but inmates can spend most of their waking hours in a communal dayroom instead of in their cells. Answer Selected Answer: second Question 14 1 out of 1 points Which type of jail inmate is most likely to serve a relatively short sentence (less than 1 year)? Answer Selected Answer: Pretrial detainees Question 15 0 out of 1 points __________ is what cynical inmates often call fines. Answer Selected Answer: Money gouging for the county Question 16 0 out of 1 points The podular/direct supervision model began in the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 17 0 out of 1 points What is the largest demographic concentration of inmates in jail and detention facilities? Answer Selected Answer: Hispanic Question 18 1 out of 1 points Most jails are operated by: Answer Selected Answer: the local law enforcement agency that has jurisdiction in the particular area. Question 19 0 out of 1 points Which of these is NOT an effort to find solutions to reduce overcrowding in jails? Answer Selected Answer: Conversion of abandoned motels to jail annex Question 20 0 out of 1 points What racial or ethnic group is the fastest growing of the U.S. jail population? Answer Selected Answer: Black Question 21 1 out of 1 points In the U.S., the concept of "innocent until proven guilty" creates many problems for local jails. Which portion of the jail population is in direct conflict with the presumption of innocence? Answer Selected Answer: Pretrial detainees Question 22 0 out of 1 points Which of these is often court ordered by sentencing judges to be used as a substitute for, or in partial satisfaction of, a fine? Answer Selected Answer: Weekend confinement Question 23 1 out of 1 points Before the 1970s, correctional officers employed continuous and direct supervision ofinmates. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 24 0 out of 1 points Which of these is NOT a category of jail inmates? Answer Selected Answer: Convicted offenders Question 25 0 out of 1 points The 25 largest jails in the nation have almost 90% of the nation's total jail population. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 1 1 out of 1 points Which of these is NOT a category of jail inmates? Answer Selected Answer: All of these are categories of jail inmates. Question 2 0 out of 1 points Which of the following was NOT a finding of the Vera Institute of Justice's evaluation of efficacy of using day fines in Staten Island, NY? Answer Selected Answer: Overall revenues increased. Question 3 1 out of 1 points More than half of all persons in local jails are: Answer Selected Answer: awaiting trial. Question 4 0 out of 1 points Hold-back jail inmates are frequently delayed while being transported to prisons due to the overcrowding in prisons. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 5 0 out of 1 points What is the largest demographic concentration of inmates in jail and detention facilities? Answer Selected Answer: Black Question 6 0 out of 1 points The U.S. Bureau of Prisons has its own jail system. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 7 1 out of 1 points The vast majority of offenders begin their journey through the correctional system in: Answer Selected Answer: jail. Question 8 0 out of 1 points Which of these is NOT an effort to find solutions to reduce overcrowding in jails? Answer Selected Answer: Using manufactured housing units Question 9 1 out of 1 points The accused and the convicted, not to mention the guilty and the innocent, are housed in prisons. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 10 1 out of 1 points The overall number of jails has declined, due to the decrease in jail beds/cells. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 11 1 out of 1 points What racial or ethnic group is the fastest growing of the U.S. jail population? Answer Selected Answer: Hispanic Question 12 0 out of 1 points Which alternative to jail serves to lessen the negative impact of short-term incarceration andallow offenders to retain current employment? Answer Selected Answer: Day fines Question 13 0 out of 1 points Which of these is often court ordered by sentencing judges to be used as a substitute for, or in partial satisfaction of, a fine? Answer Selected Answer: Electronic monitoring Question 14 1 out of 1 points Before the 1970s, correctional officers employed continuous and direct supervision ofinmates. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 15 1 out of 1 points __________ is what cynical inmates often call fines. Answer Selected Answer: Price-tag justice Question 16 1 out of 1 points Which state was the first to establish standards for jails? Answer Selected Answer: Maine Question 17 1 out of 1 points Jails are funded predominantly by __________. Answer Selected Answer: local taxes Question 18 0 out of 1 points A large percentage of jail inmates have used alcohol and drugs at sometime in their lives. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 19 0 out of 1 points Which of these is NOT a reason for overcrowding in America's jails. Answer Selected Answer: Increased pressure from state correctional systems to reduce prison populations Question 20 1 out of 1 points New-generation jails employ intermittent supervision of inmates. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 21 1 out of 1 points A "weekender" refers to an inmate who isconfined in a detention facilityonly on the weekends. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 22 1 out of 1 points In general, most jails are functioning under capacity levels. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 23 1 out of 1 points Historically, serious attempts have been made to provide programs or treatment of jail inmates. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 24 1 out of 1 points The 25 largest jails in the nation have almost 90% of the nation's total jail population. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 25 1 out of 1 points Jails house only convicted offenders. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 1 0 out of 1 points A super-maximum prison is characterized by all of the following statements EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: offers only restricted movement. Question 2 1 out of 1 points How was the old prison social system overturned in the 1970s? Answer Selected Answer: Members of street gangs and crazies were admitted to prison. Question 3 1 out of 1 points In general, the higher the security level, the less the cost of construction. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 4 0 out of 1 points The growth of prison industry has helped to overcome the characteristics of idleness and boredom in prison. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 5 0 out of 1 points Which of the following factors most often hampers inmates getting the work, educational, vocational programs that they need? Answer Selected Answer: Reclassification Question 6 1 out of 1 points How many offenders do the Big Four house? Answer Selected Answer: 30,000 Question 7 0 out of 1 points The fewest prison inmates are in the ________ security level. Answer Selected Answer: medium Question 8 0 out of 1 points Which of the following behaviors would NOT generally result in the offender being assigned to the special housing unit (SHU)? Answer Selected Answer: Attempting to escape Question 9 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT one of the advantages ofhaving a centralized and autonomousdepartment of corrections at the state level? Answer Selected Answer: Control of personnel and fiscal resources Question 10 0 out of 1 points How many state prison systems were declared unconstitutional by state and federalcourt systems in 2007? Answer Selected Answer: None Question 11 1 out of 1 points The age of America's prison population is increasing. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 12 1 out of 1 points What percent of the prison population has NOT graduated from high school or obtained a GED? Answer Selected Answer: 50% Question 13 1 out of 1 points Security and custody are the primary emphases in prisons. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 14 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is the one principle in the case of inmate rights in state-level prisons to which the Supreme Court has held fast? Answer Selected Answer: Inmates rights are an issue that is of little concern to the federal court system and Supreme Court of the United States. Question 15 1 out of 1 points Prisons have mostly succeeded in reforming inmates so they can lead a noncriminal life in thefree world. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 16 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT a way in which correctional administrators have reacted to the increased violence in prisons since the 1970s? Answer Selected Answer: Created ways to identify security threat groups (STG) Question 17 0 out of 1 points The prison construction boom has solved the problem of overcrowded prisons. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 18 0 out of 1 points The U.S. Supreme Court determined that new or recently transferred inmates may not be segregated by race in the classification process. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 19 0 out of 1 points Which statement is NOT a reason that an offender would be put into super-maximum prison? Answer Selected Answer: Attempted escape from prison Question 20 0 out of 1 points What is the average cost to build a new prison per prison bed? Answer Selected Answer: $45,000 per prison bed Question 21 0 out of 1 points Institutional needs may supersede offender needs in program assignment. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 22 1 out of 1 points What has the prison population done since 1990? Answer Selected Answer: Increased Question 23 0 out of 1 points Approximately how many state and local prisons have been built since the late 1980s? Answer Selected Answer: 1,100 Question 24 0 out of 1 points What is the average sentence length for prisoners serving in state institutions? Answer Selected Answer: About 17 years Question 25 0 out of 1 points The five U.S. military branches have their own prison systems. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 1 0 out of 1 points Which of the following factors most often hampers inmates getting the work, educational, vocational programs that they need? Answer Selected Answer: Initial classification Question 2 1 out of 1 points What has the prison population done since 1990? Answer Selected Answer: Increased Question 3 0 out of 1 points A super-maximum prison is characterized by all of the following statements EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: controls offender through separation from the prison population Question 4 1 out of 1 points Which of the following behaviors would NOT generally result in the offender being assigned to the special housing unit (SHU)? Answer Selected Answer: Display ofpsychotic symptoms Question 5 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT one of the ways in which prisons take advantage of cheap prisonlabor? Answer Selected Answer: Agricultural prisons Question 6 0 out of 1 points Which statement is NOT a reason that an offender would be put into super-maximum prison? Answer Selected Answer: Seriously assaulted another inmate Question 7 1 out of 1 points How many offenders do the Big Four house? Answer Selected Answer: 30,000 Question 8 1 out of 1 points The age of America's prison population is increasing. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 9 1 out of 1 points The prison construction boom has solved the problem of overcrowded prisons. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 10 1 out of 1 points The majority of prison inmates are males. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 11 1 out of 1 points How was the old prison social system overturned in the 1970s? Answer Selected Answer: Members of street gangs and crazies were admitted to prison. Question 12 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT one of the Big Four local institutions that house more offenders than many states entire prison systems? Answer Selected Answer: The New York City Department of Corrections Question 13 1 out of 1 points What is the average cost to build a new prison per prison bed? Answer Selected Answer: $74,000 per prison bed Question 14 1 out of 1 points Security and custody are the primary emphases in prisons. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 15 1 out of 1 points The Supreme Court decisions have never challenged certain conditions of state-level imprisonment on the issue of "cruel and unusual punishment." Answer Selected Answer: False Question 16 1 out of 1 points The five U.S. military branches have their own prison systems. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 17 1 out of 1 points Prisons have mostly succeeded in reforming inmates so they can lead a noncriminal life in thefree world. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 18 0 out of 1 points The fewest prison inmates are in the ________ security level. Answer Selected Answer: minimum Question 19 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is the one principle in the case of inmate rights in state-level prisons to which the Supreme Court has held fast? Answer Selected Answer: State-level prisons are beyond the purview of the Supreme Court. The state court of last resort provides the final hearing Question 20 1 out of 1 points What percent of the prison population has NOT graduated from high school or obtained a GED? Answer Selected Answer: 50% Question 21 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT a way in which correctional administrators have reacted to the increased violence in prisons since the 1970s? Answer Selected Answer: Sought help from the old hands in the prison social system Question 22 1 out of 1 points In general, the higher the security level, the less the cost of construction. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 23 0 out of 1 points African American males are incarcerated at a rate equal to that of Whites. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 24 1 out of 1 points What is the average sentence length for prisoners serving in state institutions? Answer Selected Answer: About 8 years Question 25 0 out of 1 points How many state prison systems were declared unconstitutional by state and federalcourt systems in 2007? Answer Selected Answer: 12 Question 1 1 out of 1 points The BOP recognized by the 1970s that rehabilitation did not work and replaced it with retributive, deterrent, and incapacitativeefforts. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 2 0 out of 1 points The Federal Bureau of Prisons adapted to the court s intervention in inmate conditions during the 1970s in all of the following ways EXCEPT Answer Selected Answer: enhance due process rights for inmates Question 3 0 out of 1 points One of the first federal prisons was acquired from the military. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 4 0 out of 1 points The BOP s unit management movement in the 1970s to 1980s is generally characterized by all of the following EXCEPT Answer Selected Answer: incorporating team offices in the living units Question 5 0 out of 1 points The Bureau of Prisons requires that inmates have a twelfth-grade literacy level at a minimum; otherwise mandatory literacy classes are required. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 6 0 out of 1 points Medium security prisons have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT Answer Selected Answer: community college campus design Question 7 0 out of 1 points The federal system classifies offenders into fivelevels. Which of the following is NOT one of them? Answer Selected Answer: High Question 8 0 out of 1 points How many federal prisons are available to house offenders as of mid- 2008? Answer Selected Answer: 127 Question 9 0 out of 1 points Federal Prison Camps are an example of which security level? Answer Selected Answer: High Question 10 1 out of 1 points In general, the federal prison system finds that the higher security institutions are more humane when prison crowding is reduced. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 11 0 out of 1 points Which president was responsible for assisting the creations of the Federal Bureau of Prisons? Answer Selected Answer: Roosevelt Question 12 0 out of 1 points All federal felony offenders are housed in federal institutions. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 13 0 out of 1 points of the first all-female federal prisons opened in what year? Answer Selected Answer: 1943 Question 14 0 out of 1 points Sanford Bates was the first director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 15 0 out of 1 points Why was the National Institute of Corrections established? Answer Selected Answer: To provide assistance to state and local correctional agencies and centers Question 16 0 out of 1 points The first federal prison is best described using all of the following characteristics EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: industrial. Question 17 0 out of 1 points Federal Prison Industries, Inc., sells its products to other federal agencies and the public market. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 18 0 out of 1 points Before the establishment of federal prison institutions, federal felons were uniformly placedon federal probation. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 19 0 out of 1 points All of the first federal prisons adopted their architectural design from which of the following? Answer Selected Answer: State system Question 20 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT one of the acts that created more federal prisoners? Answer Selected Answer: White Slave Act Question 21 1 out of 1 points The federal government passed a congressional bill to build the first three federal prisons in what year? Answer Selected Answer: 1891 Question 22 0 out of 1 points Director Norman A. Carlson (1970-1987) changed the Bureau of Prisons in all of the following ways EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: established the National Institute of Corrections Question 23 1 out of 1 points Which security level is responsible for special inmate populations, such as pretrial detention, inmates with severe and chronic medical problems, and extremely dangerous and violent inmates? Answer Selected Answer: Administrative Question 24 0 out of 1 points Minimum or open institutions are beneficial for all the following reasons EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: offenders may miss treatment programs targeted toward higher classification institutions Question 25 0 out of 1 points The Federal Bureau of Prisons was created in 1929. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 1 0 out of 1 points Federal correctional officers are trained at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in Glynco, GA. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 2 0 out of 1 points Maximum-security prisons are characterized by all of the following EXCEPT Answer Selected Answer: floodlights after dark. Question 3 1 out of 1 points Federal Prison Camps are an example of which security level? Answer Selected Answer: minimum Question 4 1 out of 1 points One of the first federal prisons was acquired from the military. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 5 0 out of 1 points The first federal prison is best described using all of the following characteristics EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: punitive. Question 6 1 out of 1 points The federal system classifies offenders into fivelevels. Which of the following is NOT one of them? Answer Selected Answer: Middle Question 7 1 out of 1 points Before the establishment of federal prison institutions, federal felons were uniformly placedon federal probation. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 8 1 out of 1 points The Federal Bureau of Prisons was created in 1929. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 9 0 out of 1 points Medium security prisons have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT Answer Selected Answer: electronic surveillance equipment. Question 10 1 out of 1 points Federal penitentiaries generally have double fences with dormitory-style housing. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 11 1 out of 1 points All federal felony offenders are housed in federal institutions. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 12 0 out of 1 points Medium security institutions as compared to maximum-security institutions have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT Answer Selected Answer: smaller institutions. Question 13 1 out of 1 points All of the first federal prisons adopted their architectural design from which of the following? Answer Selected Answer: Auburn system Question 14 1 out of 1 points In general, the federal prison system finds that the higher security institutions are more humane when prison crowding is reduced. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 15 1 out of 1 points Which president was responsible for assisting the creations of the Federal Bureau of Prisons? Answer Selected Answer: Hoover Question 16 0 out of 1 points Federal institutions provide the following academic and occupational opportunities EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: apprenticeship programs. Question 17 1 out of 1 points The Bureau of Prisons requires that inmates have a twelfth-grade literacy level at a minimum; otherwise mandatory literacy classes are required. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 18 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT one of the acts that created more federal prisoners? Answer Selected Answer: The Volsted Act Question 19 0 out of 1 points The federal prison system was created for several interdependent reasons. Which of the following is NOT one of them? Answer Selected Answer: States became reluctant to take federal inmates Question 20 0 out of 1 points After the creation of the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the federal prison system did not grow until the increase in crime in the 1960s. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 21 0 out of 1 points Minimum or open institutions are beneficial for all the following reasons EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: allow inmates with low risk classification to serve potentially long prison terms in work-oriented environments. Question 22 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is one of the first federal prisons that was acquired from the military in 1895? Answer Selected Answer: Fort Leavenworth Question 23 0 out of 1 points The BOP s unit management movement in the 1970s to 1980s is generally characterized by all of the following EXCEPT Answer Selected Answer: direct daily contact between the inmate and staff. Question 24 1 out of 1 points While the prison population at the state level has been skyrocketing, the prison population at the federal level has not grown. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 25 1 out of 1 points The federal government passed a congressional bill to build the first three federal prisons in what year? Answer Selected Answer: 1891 Question 1 0 out of 1 points Those inmates that have had no parole supervision have a higher rate of re-arrest within two years than those that did have parole supervision. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 2 0 out of 1 points The success of community-based corrections is with the coordination of activities and services available to offenders. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 3 1 out of 1 points A form of pardon for a class of offenders is known as: Answer Selected Answer: Amnesty Question 4 0 out of 1 points A commutation is the reduction of the severity of the sentence by the executive branch of the government. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 5 1 out of 1 points Which of the following, if any, is required for a pardon in California? Answer Selected Answer: All of the above Question 6 1 out of 1 points A pardon, reduction of sentence, or release of an inmate by the governor or pardoning authority is known as: Answer Selected Answer: Executive clemency Question 7 0 out of 1 points Which of the following statements accurately reflects the Supreme Court's opinion about parole-granting hearings? Answer Selected Answer: The parolee has the right to witnesses at a parole-granting hearing. Question 8 0 out of 1 points Most offenders in prison are eventually returned to society. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 9 1 out of 1 points Which of the following men is considered the father of parole? Answer Selected Answer: Alexander Maconochie Question 10 0 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT a common type of furlough? Answer Selected Answer: Emergency Question 11 0 out of 1 points Parole release guidelines generally reduce the inmate anxiety and hostility of the on-the-spot decision-making process frequently found in other jurisdictions. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 12 1 out of 1 points Good-time laws involve taking days off an offender's sentence as a result of conduct and behavior in accordance with institutional rules. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 13 1 out of 1 points Every jurisdiction in the nation had a parole authority by 1870. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 14 0 out of 1 points In 2006, what percentage of inmates exited parole by expiration of sentence? Answer Selected Answer: 35% Question 15 0 out of 1 points What do criminologists say is a precursor to current-day parole? Answer Selected Answer: Imprisonment Question 16 0 out of 1 points This requires release of an inmate from incarceration because the statutes mandate the release of any inmate who has served his or her maximum sentence: Answer Selected Answer: Good-time laws Question 17 0 out of 1 points Halfway houses are accurately described by all of the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: halfway out of the institution. Question 18 1 out of 1 points A reduction of severity of the sentence by the executive branch of government is known as: Answer Selected Answer: Commutation Question 19 0 out of 1 points Lowenkamp and Latessa found that parolees who were supervised had lower rearrest rates than those who were not. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 20 0 out of 1 points A commutation is a form of pardon for a class of offenders. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 21 0 out of 1 points Which of the following statements is NOT true about parole board personnel? Answer Selected Answer: They may be entirely independent of correctional influence. Question 22 0 out of 1 points Parole revocation is guided by the decision known as Morrissey v. Brewer. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 23 0 out of 1 points This release of an inmate occurs before the expiration of maximum sentencing due toappropriate behavior while incarcerated. Answer Selected Answer: Truth-in-sentencing Question 24 1 out of 1 points Parole boards are fairly uniform in size, operating procedures, and selection procedures. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 25 1 out of 1 points Spain started the first operational system of conditional release for good behavior in 1835. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 1 1 out of 1 points A form of pardon for a class of offenders is known as: Answer Selected Answer: Amnesty Question 2 1 out of 1 points In recent years, the number and percentage of prisoners released on parole has increased steadily. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 3 1 out of 1 points Parole revocation is guided by the decision known as Morrissey v. Brewer. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 4 1 out of 1 points Spain started the first operational system of conditional release for good behavior in 1835. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 5 1 out of 1 points Parole boards are fairly uniform in size, operating procedures, and selection procedures. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 6 1 out of 1 points Which of the following statements is NOT true about parole board personnel? Answer Selected Answer: Generally they are persons trained in corrections. Question 7 1 out of 1 points Those inmates that have had no parole supervision have a higher rate of re-arrest within two years than those that did have parole supervision. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 8 1 out of 1 points Lowenkamp and Latessa found that parolees who were supervised had lower rearrest rates than those who were not. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 9 1 out of 1 points Which of the following, if any, is required for a pardon in California? Answer Selected Answer: All of the above Question 10 0 out of 1 points Which of the following statements accurately reflects the Supreme Court's opinion about parole-granting hearings? Answer Selected Answer: An inmate has the right to a parole-granting hearing. Question 11 0 out of 1 points In which way is an inmate least likely to get into a halfway house? Answer Selected Answer: Remand Question 12 0 out of 1 points Work release allows the offender to do all of the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: spend the day away from the institution. Question 13 1 out of 1 points A reduction of severity of the sentence by the executive branch of government is known as: Answer Selected Answer: Commutation Question 14 0 out of 1 points This movement requires inmates to serve a significant portion of their sentence before consideration for release: Answer Selected Answer: Mandatory release Question 15 1 out of 1 points Good-time laws involve taking days off an offender's sentence as a result of conduct and behavior in accordance with institutional rules. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 16 1 out of 1 points A pardon, reduction of sentence, or release of an inmate by the governor or pardoning authority is known as: Answer Selected Answer: Executive clemency Question 17 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT a common type of furlough? Answer Selected Answer: Probation Question 18 0 out of 1 points Halfway houses are accurately described by all of the following EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: development due to an increased need for diversionary alternatives to prison. Question 19 1 out of 1 points Parole eligibility may be determined in all of the following ways EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: completion of the maximum sentence. Question 20 1 out of 1 points The success of community-based corrections is with the coordination of activities and services available to offenders. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 21 1 out of 1 points In 2006, what percentage of inmates exited parole by expiration of sentence? Answer Selected Answer: 63% Question 22 1 out of 1 points Most offenders in prison are eventually returned to society. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 23 1 out of 1 points Which of the following men is considered the father of parole? Answer Selected Answer: Alexander Maconochie Question 24 1 out of 1 points The most common parole guidelines system includes the seriousness of the offense and previous criminal behavior that the inmate brings to the current offense. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 25 1 out of 1 points A commutation is a form of pardon for a class of offenders. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 1 0 out of 1 points The term arbitrary means: Answer Selected Answer: deliberate indifference. Question 2 1 out of 1 points Which Supreme Court case resulted in a moratorium on capital punishment in America? Answer Selected Answer: Furman v. Georgia Question 3 0 out of 1 points The execution of women offenders is quite rare. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 4 1 out of 1 points Which U.S. Court cases ended the moratorium on the death penalty? Answer Selected Answer: Gregg v. Georgia Question 5 0 out of 1 points The constitutionality of state-supported execution includes all of the following concerns EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: public attitudes toward capital punishment. Question 6 0 out of 1 points If a prosecutor decides not to seek the death penalty, a person can still be sentenced to death if a jury convicts him or her and selects the death penalty. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 7 0 out of 1 points A moratorium on executions was in effect from 1972 to 1976. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 8 1 out of 1 points The first person to be executed by electrocution was Gee Jon in Nevada in 1924. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 9 1 out of 1 points The death sentence is discretionary in a death penalty jurisdiction. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 10 0 out of 1 points Offenses for which an offender can receive the death penalty are known as: Answer Selected Answer: mandatory offenses. Question 11 0 out of 1 points The first execution by lethal injection was in Texas in 1982. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 12 1 out of 1 points States without the death penalty have had consistently higher murder rates than states with the death penalty. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 13 1 out of 1 points Which of the following progressions of execution methods reflects the temporal progression ofexecutions in America since the late 1800s? Answer Selected Answer: Electric chair, lethal gas, lethal injection Question 14 1 out of 1 points Executions are generally carried out soon after the death penalty sentence. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 15 1 out of 1 points There is evidence that the death penalty is racially biased based on the race of the victim in certain jurisdictions in all of the following states EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: California. Question 16 1 out of 1 points The American public's attitude towards the death penalty remains constant. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 17 0 out of 1 points Approximately how many documented executions have been performed in America since 1608? Answer Selected Answer: 15,000 Question 18 0 out of 1 points Approximately 800 people have been executed since 1976. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 19 1 out of 1 points All of the following are justifications for the death penalty according to the retentionist perspective EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: rehabilitation. Question 20 1 out of 1 points Many death row inmates profess their innocence but none have yet been proven innocent. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 21 0 out of 1 points More African-Americans than whites have been executed since 1976. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 22 1 out of 1 points The first person to be executed by lethal gas was William Kemmler in the Auburn Penitentiary, NY, in 1890. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 23 0 out of 1 points America had the greatestnumber of executions during which of the following decades? Answer Selected Answer: 1980s Question 24 1 out of 1 points The underlying progression of the means to execution is to find the "most humane" method. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 25 0 out of 1 points Which of the following jurisdictions or states in America do NOT have the death penalty? Answer Selected Answer: Texas Question 1 1 out of 1 points The underlying progression of the means to execution is to find the "most humane" method. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 2 0 out of 1 points The term arbitrary means: Answer Selected Answer: acting in a fair and consistent manner. Question 3 1 out of 1 points Executions are generally carried out soon after the death penalty sentence. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 4 1 out of 1 points The first person to be executed by lethal gas was William Kemmler in the Auburn Penitentiary, NY, in 1890. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 5 1 out of 1 points Approximately how many documented executions have been performed in America since 1608? Answer Selected Answer: 19,500 Question 6 0 out of 1 points Who is theperson who signals for the executioner to throw the switch to activate the electrical system? Answer Selected Answer: The Director of the State Department of Corrections Question 7 1 out of 1 points Many death row inmates profess their innocence but none have yet been proven innocent. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 8 1 out of 1 points What is the lowest age that the Supreme Court has declared a juvenile can be executed? Answer Selected Answer: No one under the age 18 when the capital crime was committed Question 9 1 out of 1 points More African-Americans than whites have been executed since 1976. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 10 1 out of 1 points States without the death penalty have had consistently higher murder rates than states with the death penalty. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 11 0 out of 1 points Which of the following statements accurately reflects the "arbitrary" criticism of executions? Answer Selected Answer: If death gets inflicted in extreme cases, all murders and murderers are, in fact, "extreme." Question 12 0 out of 1 points What is one of the main reasons that executions were done as a public spectacle? Answer Selected Answer: Management Question 13 1 out of 1 points Females comprise 3% of all executions in America since the early 1600s. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 14 1 out of 1 points Offenses for which an offender can receive the death penalty are known as: Answer Selected Answer: capital crimes. Question 15 1 out of 1 points The first person to be executed by electrocution was Gee Jon in Nevada in 1924. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 16 1 out of 1 points A moratorium on executions was in effect from 1972 to 1976. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 17 1 out of 1 points Approximately 800 people have been executed since 1976. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 18 0 out of 1 points The constitutionality of state-supported execution includes all of the following concerns EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: Sixth and FourteenthAmendments of equability. Question 19 1 out of 1 points The first execution by lethal injection was in Texas in 1982. Answer Selected Answer: True Question 20 1 out of 1 points How many documented executions of women have been performed since 1632 in America? Answer Selected Answer: 564 Question 21 0 out of 1 points Prosecutors have _________ in the judicial system when it comes to the death penalty. Answer Selected Answer: no role Question 22 0 out of 1 points All of the following are reasons why women generally do not get the death penalty EXCEPT: Answer Selected Answer: women account for a low proportion of persons on death row. Question 23 1 out of 1 points Which Supreme Court case resulted in a moratorium on capital punishment in America? Answer Selected Answer: Furman v. Georgia Question 24 1 out of 1 points Which of the following jurisdictions or states in America do NOT have the death penalty? Answer Selected Answer: Massachusetts Question 25 0 out of 1 points Who seeks the death penalty sentence in a court of law? Answer Selected Answer: The judge

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